21-09-2023 311.916 Views

  • Vietnam is made up of a mosaic of peoples. There are no fewer than 54 different ethnic groups from China, Cambodia, and Thailand. This contributes to make Vietnam an exceptionally rich country culturally.
  • Many ethnic groups live in the mountainous regions of the North, such as the Hmong, the Tay, the Dao ... In the center and in a part of the Mekong Delta are the Chams, survivors of the Hindu kingdom of Champa. In the highlands, we find the Rhade, the Giarai (or Jorai) and the Raglai.
The history of Vietnam is complex. Vietnam was first occupied until the 10th century by China.
Once liberated from Chinese rule, the Vietnamese spread along the coast from the Red River Delta to the Mekong Delta. Over the centuries, the dynasties will succeed and draw the borders of Vietnam as we know it today.
  • In the middle of the 19th century, the French arrive in Vietnam and integrate it into their colonial empire.
  • The 20th century marks the rise of anti-colonialist movements.
  • The independence of Vietnam is proclaimed on September 2, 1945, by Ho Chi Minh. After the failure of the negotiations, the Viet Minh launched a new insurrection in December 1946, which will end with the peace accords of Geneva in 1954, and by the recognition by France of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam north of the 17th parallel.
The two sides of Vietnam know then the setting up of ideologically opposed governments: in the north, a communist regime founded and directed by Ho Chi Minh, and in the south, a nationalist regime proclaimed by Ngô Dinh Diêm and supported by the Americans.

The first battles between communist partisans and southern troops began in 1957 and experienced a rapid escalation following the American intervention. After fifteen years of bitter fighting and a heavy human toll, the war ends with the signing of the Paris Peace Agreement in 1973.
  • Vietnam is officially reunited on September 2, 1976, and Hanoi becomes the capital.
Today Vietnam is officially called the "Socialist Republic of Vietnam", and the Communist Party is the only party. It is a young and proud country, which has been opening to the world for 15 years.

  • Tet Nguyen Dan - Lunar New Year : this is the most important Vietnamese holiday. It marks the beginning of a new year and the sign of the arrival of spring. According to the belief of the Asians, each lunar year is placed under an astrological sign.
  • Tet Nguyen Tieu : is the first full moon day of the lunar year. During the festivities, the pagodas and streets are decorated with lanterns. After the ceremony, Vietnamese people participate in the festival of lanterns of flowers, which they put and let flow in the river.
  • The second-largest traditional festival in Vietnam, the Mid-Autumn Festival (Tet Trung Thu) : is an opportunity to reunite with its family. As you look at the moon, you can enjoy the "banh deo" (glutinous rice cake) and the "banh nuong" (grilled cakes) together and enjoy chrysanthemum green tea. It is also the most anticipated holiday season for children, who are offered new toys, including lanterns, masks, and small drums and rattles, to animate the mid-autumn parade.

  • In Vietnam, it is better to remain calm, not be aggressive or angry.
  • Regarding a rule of manners, remember to take off your shoes when you enter a temple or a house.
  • In sacred places (pagodas, churches temples ...), speak in a low voice and avoid touching objects of worship (statuettes of genies and Buddhas). Wear clothes covering the shoulders and legs.
  • It is strongly discouraged to touch the head of a Vietnamese; in Europe, touching someone's head can be perceived as a friendly gesture, but it is not at all the case in Vietnam, it is for them a gesture that is very badly perceived. Indeed, the Vietnamese believe that the head is sacred since it is the home of the soul.
  • When eating, do not plant the chopsticks in a bowl filled with rice. It is indeed a ritual that we do for the dead.
  • Avoid swimming in stagnant water (risk of parasitic infection).
  • Avoid walking barefoot on sand and wet soil.
  • Stay away from dead animals, animals and their droppings.
  • Do not approach stray animals and dogs (risk of biting and rabies); do not pet the animals you meet.
  • Shake clothes, sheets and sleeping bag to avoid scorpion stings or snakes.
  • Ensure your road safety (wearing the seat belt, wearing the helmet in two wheels).
  • Never consume drugs purchased on the street.
  • Wash your hands regularly with hydro-alcoholic washing solutions

Vietnamese cuisine is one of the most subtle and varied in Southeast Asia. Unlike its close neighbors, the Vietnamese cook without spice, but it is present fresh, sliced ​​on the table for fans who would spice up their dishes.

Rice is the essential component of any Vietnamese meal, and the main condiment of Vietnamese cuisine is nuoc mam. It is a fish sauce fermented in salt. In addition, the use of aromatic herbs is ubiquitous; they are served separately so that you can add them according to your taste.
  • IN THE NORTH : the cuisine of the North is largely based on noodle soups, simmered dishes, grilled meats. It allows palates to find the tastes of the products used.
  • IN THE CENTER : in the cooking style of the Center, there are many Cham elements and the imperial court of Hue. It is the most contrasting cuisine in the country. It is very refined and largely uses steam cooking. Beware however, it is the exception that confirms the rule, many dishes (those inspired by Cham) are cooked with hot peppers.
  • IN THE SOUTH : southern cuisine is inspired by the North, but with local ingredients. It is characterized by many sweet and savory.
  • The phở: native of Hanoi, it is the national dish par excellence. Made with broth, beef slices and rice noodles. It is topped with more or less fresh soy, Chinese basil, mint, lime and peppers.
  • Another typical dish and very appreciated is the banh khoai or bánh xèo. It is a crepe or omelette, made from rice flour flavored with cumin, stuffed with soya beans, thin slices of pork and shrimp. It is served hot and crisp, seasoned with nuoc-mâm.
  • The famous bun bo is a Vietnamese soup composed of rice vermicelli, beef, soy sprouts, herbs to add to the taste of everyone and the broth is especially delicious !
  • In Europe, we know Bún bò Nam Bộ (we call it the Bo Bun); it is a salad of rice vermicelli, beef, salads, nem sauce and peanuts and legumes according to each recipe.
Conviviality is often the keyword during a Vietnamese meal, because all the dishes are arranged at the center of the table and accompanied by the necessary condiments such as: spicy sauce, soy sauce, possibly a small bowl of fresh chilli and the famous nuoc -mâm. Each uses according to his desires using bowl and chopsticks.
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