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HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF BURMA

08/07/2019 49 Views
1st century BC: The Pyu establish city-states in the center of the country.
 
6th century: The Mon settle in the fertile coastal plains that extend from the Irrawaddy delta to western Cambodia.
 
8th / 9th century: The Mongols from the eastern Himalayas invade Myanmar, and supplant the Pyu in the heart of Myanmar.
 
1044: Anawrahta, first founding king of the dynasty and the kingdom of Bagan, realizes for the first time the unity of Burma. He introduced Theravada Buddhism with the help of a missionary monk from Thaton: Arahan. At this time, Anawrahta develops agriculture, reigns over Arakhan, Shan country and Mon kingdom. The Pali becomes the sacred religious language and the mon literary language of Burma. His best-known works of merit are Shwezigon, Shwesandaw and Lokananda. The golden age of Bagan will last until the 13th century.
 
1364: The Shans found the kingdom of Ava, near the present Mandalay. On the west coast, the Rakhine (or Arakanese) founded Mrauk U (Myohaung), a Buddhist kingdom that rivals Bagan.
 
1369: Foundation of Bago.
 
1430: Mrauk U becomes the capital of the new kingdom of Arakan.
 
1472: Accession to the throne of Dhammazedi, considered the greatest of the kings of Pegu. Development of Buddhism and first contacts with Europe.
 
1550: Advent of Bayinnaung, King of Taungoo. The dynasty will succeed in reunifying the country. In the 18th century, as the French, Dutch and British fought for control of Southeast Asia, the Taungoo dynasty disappeared following a Mon revolt backed by the French.
 
1819: The British declare war on the Burmese. Under the terms of the Yandabo Treaty, a "resident" British takes control of several regions.
 
1852: Second Anglo-Burmese War. Lower Myanmar (and its huge reserves of teak and rice) became the province of the Indian Empire.
 
1885: The English seize Mandalay and Upper Myanmar and annex the country to British India. Indians, traditionally despised by the Burmese, come to settle in mass in the country.
 
1937: Burma becomes a British colony.

 
1942: During the Second World War, the Japanese enter the country and raise the National Burma Army, led by Aung San (future "founding father" of the independent Burma) against the English at first and proclaim its independence. Towards the end of the war, the National Army joined forces with the British to expel the Japanese.
 
1948: On January 4, Burma becomes independent and leaves the Commonwealth. The new government of U Nu is confronted with the disintegration of the country, in the hands of various rebel groups: hill tribes, communists, Muslims of Rakhine, Mon, private armies, dacoits, Chinese anti-communist force, mutineers of all kinds ...
 
1962: Ne Win, at the head of a military government, took power and imposed a socialist regime. The policy of "the Burmese way to socialism" resulted in many nationalizations (to retail outlets) and mass expulsion of Indians and Chinese (nearly 250,000).
 
1974: The demonstrations of the opponents multiply. New constitution. Opening to tourism. The country takes the name of Socialist Republic of Burma.
 
1988: Following demonstrations in favor of democracy, Ne Win withdrew in July. In September, a coup d'état brings to power the SLORC, the State Council for the Restoration of the Law and the Order, which establishes martial law. The NLD (National League for Democracy) opposition coalition, rallies around Aung San Suu Kyi, charismatic daughter of Aung San, who will be assigned to her residence in 1989.
 
1989: The country takes the name of Union of Myanmar and Aung San Suu Kyi is assigned to his residence.
 
1990: The overwhelming victory of the opposition party, the National League for Democracy. The SLORC refuses to hold the convention of the People's Assembly and continues its policy of repression and ethnic cleansing.
 
1991: Aung San Suu Kyi receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
 
1995: Aung San Suu Kyi is released. Meanwhile, the SPDC (National Council for Peace and Development) (ex-SLORC) continues its policy of repression: human rights violations, arbitrary arrests, torture, forced displacements of populations ...
 
1999: Opening of several new border posts with China and Thailand. Two states remain closed abroad.
 
2000: In October open talks between the junta and Aung San Suu Kyi.
 
2001: In the face of international pressure, the junta makes forced labor illegal ...
 
2002-2003: Aung San Suu Kyi, arrested in September 2000, is released in May 2002, and is again under house arrest one year later.
 
2005: The city of Rangoon, with its 5.3 million inhabitants, forms a large metropolis populated by Burmese and minority ethnic groups. The majority of the population is hostile to the military regime that governs the country. That is why, in order to secure its rear and its security, the government has begun moving the offices of Rangoon headquarters to the former British capital, Pyinmana. This town, with a population of nearly 85,000, is located some 380 km north of Rangoon, in a narrow area surrounded by mountains. In order to minimize costs, only the main ministries (Interior, Defense, Foreign Affairs, Transport, Energy, Agriculture, Information, etc.) and the government itself are transferred Pyinmana.
 
2006: Inauguration in March of the new capital Naypyidaw and closer rapprochement with China.
 
2007: Extension of the house arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi. Signing of an agreement with Russia for the construction of a nuclear research center in Burma. Important demonstrations of Buddhist monks in September ("saffron revolution"), repressed in the blood.
 
2008: Cyclone Nargis strikes the Delta region hard in May. The Burmese regime is slowing down international aid. Buddhist monks are particularly active in domestic help. Estimated balance: 138,000 deaths.
This does not prevent the junta from holding a referendum on a new constitution, approved by 92.4% of voters. The opposition denounces irregularities and massive fraud. The new constitution confirms the military's place in the government and dismisses Aung San Suu Kyi from the political game, but promises elections for 2010.
 
2010: Opening start.
In March, the regime announced that the elections will be held in November, that monks will not have the right to vote and that parties with leaders in prison will not be recognized. As a result, Aung San Suu Kyi announces that his party, the NLD, will boycott the elections. In May, the junta thus announces the dissolution of this party and the United States the continuation of the sanctions. Dissidents of this party create a new party, the NDF (National Democratic Force) who will participate in the elections.
 
2011: Everything is accelerating! Aung San Suu Kyi calls for the release of political prisoners, a condition for lifting international sanctions.
On the 29th of March, the junta dissolves itself.
 
2012: Beginning of democracy, but not for everyone. The NLD is authorized to conduct an election campaign for by-elections. Foreign observers will be present at these elections.
Partial elections on April 1st. The NLD collects the 40 seats to be filled. Aung San Suu Kyi is elected with 82% of the votes in her constituency (Kahwmu).
The European Union suspends its sanctions for a year (except the arms embargo) and the United States relax theirs and appoint an ambassador in Burma.
In June ; Aung San Suu Kyi's trip to Europe: she finally receives her Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo. In September, she goes to Washington and meets Barak Obama and Hillary Clinton.
The situation of the minorities does not settle, in particular for the Moslems of the State of Arakan, the Royingyas (80 000 stateless): pogroms and state of emergency from June; IDP camps and boat people in the Bay of Bengal.
Offensive news against Kachin in the North and against Môns in the South.
In December, a ceasefire agreement was signed with the southern Shan rebels, opium producers, as part of the fight against drugs.
 
 
2013: Official trips to Europe and the USA from Thein Sein, the first of a Burmese president in 60 years. Four private dailies are being launched for the first time in half a century.
 
2014: Demonstrations are organized by Buddhist extremists in Rakhine State. They demand the departure of humanitarian organizations that are accused of helping "the Muslims first". Buddhist protesters attack the premises of several humanitarian organizations. A dozen NGO and UN offices are destroyed and more than 300 aid workers are forced to flee the region. The Burmese government is exploiting the tensions for the 2015 elections.
 
2015: Parliament passes four laws known as "Race and Religion Protection Acts", which contain numerous discriminatory provisions against women and religious minorities. With 255 seats out of 440 in the House of Representatives, the National League for Democracy (NLD) of opponent Aung San Suu Kyi won an absolute majority in the first free parliamentary elections held since May 1990 (the NLD then won the poll, but the results had been canceled by the junta). President Thein Sein's PSDU (USDP) collapses with 30 elected officials.
 
2016: The Parliament elects to the presidency the former high official Htin Kyaw, candidate proposed by Aung San Suu Kyi, the Constitution prohibiting this last one to present itself. Htin Kyaw is the first head of state not to be linked to the army since the military coup of 1962. The attack on border posts claimed by a previously unknown armed group, Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), originally known as Harakah-al-Yaqin, causes the death of nine border guards and provokes violent retaliation by the Burmese army, which is launching an ethnic cleansing operation against the Rohingya population in Rakhine State. The army blocks all access to the northwest of the state. More than 87,000 Rohingya cross the border with Bangladesh as a result of these events.
 
2017: The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights publishes a report on the atrocities perpetrated in the north of Rakhine State against Rohingya, concluding that they appear to have been "generalized" as well as systematic, indicating the very likely perpetration of crimes against humanity. State Councilor and Foreign Minister Aung San Suu Kyi speaks publicly for the first time about the crisis in Rakhine State. It downplays its size and says security operations have ended since September 5, 2017.

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